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Kidney Stones

Kidney stones, commonly known as renal calculi or nephrolithiasis, are a condition in which stones form in the human kidneys. These stones, called kidney stones, can cause painful symptoms and require proper management to avoid complications. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options is crucial for addressing this condition.

Kidney stones form when substances in urine accumulate and solidify in the kidneys. Common causes include the accumulation of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, and other minerals in the urine. Factors such as dehydration, an imbalanced diet, genetic predisposition, and certain medical conditions can increase the risk of developing kidney stones.


Symptoms of kidney stones can vary, but often include sharp pain in the lower back or abdominal region. The pain may be accompanied by blood in the urine, frequent urination, urinary urgency, and nausea. Some patients may also experience fever and chills if an infection is associated with the kidney stones.


The treatment of kidney stones depends on their size, location, and the severity of symptoms. To understand the best medical solution, please contact Professor Gozzi to schedule an appointment.


Professor Gozzi